“Spreading out the particle into a string is a step in the direction of making everything we're familiar with fuzzy. You enter a completely new world where things aren't at all what you're used to.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“You have that one basic string, but it can vibrate in many ways. But we're trying to get a lot of particles because experimental physicists have discovered a lot of particles.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“There was a long history of speculation that in quantum gravity, unlike Einstein's classical theory, it might be possible for the topology of spacetime to change.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“The theory has to be interpreted that extra dimensions beyond the ordinary four dimensions the three spatial dimensions plus time are sufficiently small that they haven't been observed yet.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“String theory is an attempt at a deeper description of nature by thinking of an elementary particle not as a little point but as a little loop of vibrating string.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“So when you ask me how string theory might be tested, I can tell you what's likely to happen at accelerators or some parts of the theory that are likely to be tested.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“Quantum mechanics brought an unexpected fuzziness into physics because of quantum uncertainty, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

**NAME**

Edward Witten

BORN

8/26/1951

PROFESSION

Mathematician

NATIONALITY

American

“One of the basic things about a string is that it can vibrate in many different shapes or forms, which gives music its beauty.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“On the other hand, we don't understand the theory too completely, and because of this fuzziness of spacetime, the very concept of spacetime and spacetime dimensions isn't precisely defined.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“But the beauty of Einstein's equations, for example, is just as real to anyone who's experienced it as the beauty of music. We've learned in the 20th century that the equations that work have inner harmony.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“Technically you need the extra dimensions. At first people didn't like them too much, but they've got a big benefit, which is that the ability of string theory to describe all the elementary particles and their forces along with gravity depends on using the extra dimensions.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“It's indeed surprising that replacing the elementary particle with a string leads to such a big change in things. I'm tempted to say that it has to do with the fuzziness it introduces.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten

“As for the forces, electromagnetism and gravity we experience in everyday life. But the weak and strong forces are beyond our ordinary experience. So in physics, lots of the basic building blocks take 20th- or perhaps 21st-century equipment to explore.“

Edward Witten

Edward Witten